Open Education


Together, we can bring the light of education to all children in the country. This is an area Open Knowledge India is really passionate about. We want your support in our endeavors.Get Involved with the project and serve the community!

This project now boasts a long list of books and educational materials. All contents are licensed under CC-BY, enabling smooth sharing of the works. India has around 30 major languages and we have a long way to go before we have a comprehensive collection of educational materials in all these vernacular languages. However, things are already looking up as we have started to get content in the regional languages too. We are about to take the project to the next level by starting a system of publishing original content from authors.

All materials and books, unless otherwise specified, carry liberal CC-BY licenses.

You are Free to Use all materials listed here, to read them digitally or to print and distribute them. This is Your Project too and You are free to contribute educational materials (not only in English, but also in any vernacular language). To do that, just contact us. Let us join hands to spread the light of education. Education is everybody’s right!


 Aesop’s Fables: Tales with moral lessons

A Serpent in the course of its wanderings came into an armourer’s shop. As he glided over the floor he felt his skin pricked by a file lying there. In a rage he turned round upon it and tried to dart his fangs into it; but he could do no harm to heavy iron and had soon to give over his wrath.It is useless attacking the insensible.

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Aesop’s Fables

Glimpses of Bengal: Selected from the letters of Rabindranath Tagore between 1885-1895

Since these letters synchronize with a considerable part of my published writings, I thought their parallel course would broaden my readers’ understanding of my poems as a track is widened by retreading the same ground. Such was my justification for publishing them in a book for my countrymen. Hoping that the descriptions of village scenes in Bengal contained in these letters would also be of interest to English readers, the translation of a selection of that selection has been entrusted to one who, among all those whom I know, was best fitted to carry it out.‘ – Rabindranath Tagore

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 Third Class In Indian Railways: Essays by M.K. Gandhi

A defiant Memon merchant protested against this packing of passengers like sardines. In vain did he say that this was his fifth night on the train. The guard insulted him and referred him to the management at the terminus. There were during this night as many as 35 passengers in the carriage during the greater part of it. Some lay on the floor in the midst of dirt and some had to keep standing. A free fight was, at one time, avoided only by the intervention of some of the older passengers who did not want to add to the discomfort by an exhibition of temper.

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Third class in Indian railways


The Gitanjali or ‘song offerings’

Rabindranath Tagore (1861—1941), Nobel prize for literature 1913, with an introduction by William B. Yeats (1865—1939), Nobel prize for literature 1923. First published in 1913.

‘An innocence, a simplicity that one does not find elsewhere in literature makes the birds and the leaves seem as near to him as they are near to children, and the changes of the seasons great events as before our thoughts had arisen between them and us. At times I wonder if he has it from the literature of Bengal or from religion, and at other times, remembering the birds alighting on his brother’s hands, I find pleasure in thinking it hereditary, a mystery that was growing through the centuries like the courtesy of a Tristan or a Pelanore.’ –  W.B. Yeats.

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An Introduction to Chemical Science – R.P. Williams

It is needless to say that this treatise is primarily designed to be used in connection with a laboratory. Like all other text- books on the subject, it can be studied without such an accessory; but the author attaches very little value to the study of Chemistry without experimental work. The required apparatus and chemicals involve but little expense, and the directions for experimentation are the result of several years’ experience with classes as large as are to be found in the laboratory of any school or college in the country.

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An Introduction to Chemical Science


Lyrical Ballads : William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge

The majority of the following poems are to be considered as experiments. They were written chiefly with a view to ascertain how far the language of conversation in the middle and lower classes of society is adapted to the purposes of poetic pleasure. Readers accustomed to the gaudiness and inane phraseology of many modern writers, if they persist in reading this book to its conclusion, will perhaps frequently have to struggle with feelings of strangeness and awkwardness: they will look round for poetry, and will be induced to enquire by what species of courtesy these attempts can be permitted to assume that title.’

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An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis : Henry P. Talbot

This Introductory Course of Quantitative Analysis has been prepared to meet the needs of students who are just entering upon the subject, after a course of qualitative analysis. It is primarily intended to enable the student to work successfully and intelligently without the necessity for a larger measure of personal assistance and supervision than can reasonably be given to each member of a large class. To this end the directions are given in such detail that there is very little opportunity for the student to go astray; but the manual is not, the author believes, on this account less adapted for use with small classes, where the instructor, by greater personal influence, can stimulate independent thought on the part of the pupil.

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An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes : Arthur Conan Doyle

He chuckled to himself and rubbed his long, nervous hands together.

“It is simplicity itself,” said he; “my eyes tell me that on the inside of your left shoe, just where the firelight strikes it, the leather is scored by six almost parallel cuts. Obviously they have been caused by someone who has very carelessly scraped round the edges of the sole in order to remove crusted mud from it. Hence, you see, my double deduction that you had been out in vile weather, and that you had a particularly malignant boot-slitting specimen of the London slavey. As to your practice, if a gentleman walks into my rooms smelling of iodoform, with a black mark of nitrate of silver upon his right forefinger, and a bulge on the right side of his top-hat to show where he has secreted his stethoscope, I must be dull, indeed, if I do not pronounce him to be an active member of the medical profession.”

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The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes


আবোল তাবোল (Abol Tabol) : সুকুমার রায় (Sukumar Ray)

আবোল তাবোল, Abol tabol; meaning “weird and random”, is a collection of Bengali children’s poems and rhymes composed by সুকুমার রায় (Sukumar Ray). It was first published on 19 September 1923 and consists of 43 named and 7 unnamed short rhymes, all considered to be in the genre of literary nonsense.

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আবোল তাবোল (Abol Tabol)


A Few Poems by Sukumar Ray Translation: Satyajit Ray

A short collection of poems by Sukumar Ray taken from ‘Abol Tabol’. The poems have been tranlated from the original Bengali by his filmmaker son, Satyajit Ray.

Some of the most famous characters in “Abol tabol” include Kumro Potash, Kath Buro, Khuror Kal, Hunkumukho Hyangla, Ramgorurer Chhana, Katukutu Buro, etc.

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A Few Poems by Sukumar Ray


Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan : Toru Dutt

‘These ballads form the last and most matured of her writings, and were left so far fragmentary at her death that the fourth and fifth in her projected series of nine papers were not to be discovered in any form among her papers.’

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Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindustan


Gulliver’s Travels inti several Nations of the World: Jonathan Swift

These people are most excellent mathematicians, and arrived to a great perfection in mechanics, by the countenance and encouragement of the emperor, who is a renowned patron of learning.  This prince has several machines fixed on wheels, for the carriage of trees and other great weights.  He often builds his largest men of war, whereof some are nine feet long, in the woods where the timber grows, and has them carried on these engines three or four hundred yards to the sea.  Five hundred carpenters and engineers were immediately set at work to prepare the greatest engine they had.

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Gulliver’s Travels


Treasure Island : R.L. Stevenson

  “Well, then,” said he, “this is the berth for me. Here you, matey,” he cried to the man who trundled the barrow; “bring up alongside and help up my chest. I’ll stay here a bit,” he continued. “I’m a plain man; rum and bacon and eggs is what I want, and that head up there for to watch ships off. What you mought call me? You mought call me captain. Oh, I see what you’re at—there”; and he threw down three or four gold pieces on the threshold. “You can tell me when I’ve worked through that,” says he, looking as fierce as a commander.

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Treasure Island

 Story of My Life : Helen Keller

The wild little creature of two weeks ago has been transformed into a gentle child. She is sitting by me as I write, her face serene and happy, crocheting a long red chain of Scotch wool. She learned the stitch this week, and is very proud of the achievement. When she succeeded in making a chain that would reach across the room, she patted herself on the arm and put the first work of her hands lovingly against her cheek. She lets me kiss her now, and when she is in a particularly gentle mood, she will sit in my lap for a minute or two; but she does not return my caresses.

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Story of My Life, by Helen Keller

The Return of Sherlock Holmes : Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

“I did not take long to think about it, Watson. Again I saw that grim face look over the cliff, and I knew that it was the precursor of another stone. I scrambled down on to the path. I don’t think I could have done it in cold blood. It was a hundred times more difficult than getting up. But I had no time to think of the danger, for another stone sang past me as I hung by my hands from the edge of the ledge. Halfway down I slipped, but, by the blessing of God, I landed, torn and bleeding, upon the path. I took to my heels, did ten miles over the mountains in the darkness, and a week later I found myself in Florence, with the certainty that no one in the world knew what had become of me.

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The Return of Sherlock Holmes

The Jungle Book : Rudyard Kipling

The Law of the Jungle, which never orders anything without a reason, forbids every beast to eat Man except when he is killing to show his children how to kill, and then he must hunt outside the hunting grounds of his pack or tribe. The real reason for this is that man-killing means, sooner or later, the arrival of white men on elephants, with guns, and hundreds of brown men with gongs and rockets and torches. Then everybody in the jungle suffers. The reason the beasts give among themselves is that Man is the weakest and most defenseless of all living things, and it is unsportsmanlike to touch him. They say too—and it is true—that man-eaters become mangy, and lose their teeth.

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The Jungle Book

Paradise Lost : John Milton

Milton’s poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day. Writing in English, Latin, and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, and his celebrated Areopagitica (written in condemnation of pre-publication censorship) is among history’s most influential and impassioned defenses of free speech and freedom of the press.

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Paradise Lost, by John Milton

 The Mechanical Properties of Wood : Samuel J. Record

This book was written primarily for students of forestry to whom a knowledge of the technical properties of wood is essential. The mechanics involved is reduced to the simplest terms and without reference to higher mathematics, with which the students rarely are familiar. The intention throughout has been to avoid all unnecessarily technical language and descriptions, thereby making the subject-matter readily available to every one interested in wood.

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The Mechanical Properties of Wood

 Language – An Introduction to the Study of Speech : Edward Sapir

This little book aims to give a certain perspective on the subject of language rather than to assemble facts about it. It has little to say of the ultimate psychological basis of speech and gives only enough of the actual descriptive or historical facts of particular languages to illustrate principles. Its main purpose is to show what I conceive language to be, what is its variability in place and time, and what are its relations to other fundamental human interests—the problem of thought, the nature of the historical process, race, culture, art.

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Language,An Introduction to the Study of Speech

 The Art of Writing & Speaking the English Language Word-Study : Sherwin Cody

While language as the medium of thought may be compared to air as the medium of the sun’s influence, in other respects it is like the skin of the body; a scurvy skin shows bad blood within, and a scurvy language shows inaccurate thought and a confused mind. And as a disease once fixed on the skin reacts and poisons the blood in turn as it has first been poisoned by the blood, so careless use of language if indulged reacts on the mind to make it permanently and increasingly careless, illogical, and inaccurate in its thinking.

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The Art of Writing & Speaking the English Language

A Grammar of the English Tongue : Samuel Johnson

Grammar, which is the art of using words properly, comprises four parts: Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. In this division and order of the parts of grammar I follow the common grammarians, without inquiring whether a fitter distribution might not be found. Experience has long shown this method to be so distinct as to obviate confusion, and so comprehensive as to prevent any inconvenient omissions. I likewise use the terms already received, and already understood, though perhaps others more proper might sometimes be invented. Sylburgius, and other innovators, whose new terms have sunk their learning into neglect, have left sufficient warning against the trifling ambition of teaching arts in a new language.

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A Grammar of the English Tongue

An English Grammar : W. M. Baskervill, J. W. Sewell

It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,—to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes.

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A Grammar of the English Tongue

Chamber’s Elementary Science Readers

‘No, she is not like you. But she has plenty of cousins. Her cousins are the big lions and tigers, that live in hot countries, and eat sheep and horses, and even people when they can get them.’

A textbook for primary education.

Chambers’s Elementary Science Readers

Little Present : A little Book for Little Children

A book of the English alphabet, animals, plants, common objects and nursery songs.

It is meant for beginners. This is a book of pictures.

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Little Present

The Readers- Book-3

An English reader for school-children. It is a collection of prose and poetry.

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The Readers

Tales from Shakespeare : Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb

‘The following Tales are meant to be submitted to the young reader as an introduction to the study of Shakespeare, for which purpose his words are used whenever it seemed possible to bring them in; and in whatever has been added to give them the regular form of a connected story, diligent care has been taken to select such words as might least interrupt the effect of the beautiful English tongue in which he wrote: therefore, words introduced into our language since his time have been as far as possible avoided.’

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Tales from Shakespeare

How to Write Clearly : Edwin A. Abbott

‘The art of writing forcibly is, of course, a valuable acquisition — almost as valuable as the art of writing clearly. But forcible expression is not, like clear expression, a mere mechanism and of the manipulation of words; it is much a higher power, and implies much more.’

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How to Write Clearly

Sadhana : Rabindranath Tagore

But in India the point of view was different; it included the world with the man as one great truth. India put all her emphasis on the harmony that exists between the individual and the universal. She felt we could have no communication whatever with our surroundings if they were absolutely foreign to us. Man’s complaint against nature is that he has to acquire most of his necessaries by his own efforts. Yes, but his efforts are not in vain; he is reaping success every day, and that shows there is a rational connection between him and nature, for we never can make anything our own except that which is truly related to us.

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Political Ideals : Bertrand Russell

Political ideals must be based upon ideals for the individual life. The aim of politics should be to make the lives of individuals as good as possible. There is nothing for the politician to consider outside or above the various men, women, and children who compose the world. The problem of politics is to adjust the relations of human beings in such a way that each severally may have as much of good in his existence as possible. And this problem requires that we should first consider what it is that we think good in the individual life.

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Political Ideals

Indian Fairy Tales : Edited by Joseph Jacobs

‘The need of catering for the young ones has restricted my selection from the well-named “Ocean of the Streams of Story,” Katha-Sarit Sagara of Somadeva. The stories existing in Pali and Sanskrit I have taken from translations, mostly from the German of Benfey or the vigorous English of Professor Rhys-Davids, whom I have to thank for permission to use his versions of the Jatakas.’

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Indian Fairy Tales

Japanese Fairy Tales : Yei Theodora Ozaki

‘In telling these stories in English I have followed my fancy in adding such touches of local color or description as they seemed to need or as pleased me, and in one or two instances I have gathered in an incident from another version. At all times, among my friends, both young and old, English or American, I have always found eager listeners to the beautiful legends and fairy tales of Japan, and in telling them I have also found that they were still unknown to the vast majority, and this has encouraged me to write them for the children of the West.’

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Japanese Fairy Tales

The Einstein Theory of Relativity : H.A. Lorentz

Professor Lorentz is credited by Einstein with sharing the development of his theory. He is doubtlessbetter able than any other man—except the author himself—to explain this scientific discovery.

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The Einstein Theory of Relativity

A Brief History of Element Discovery, Synthesis, and Analysis : Glen W. Watson

The human mind has always sought order and simplification of the external world; in chemistry the fruitful classifications were Dobereiner’s Triads (1829), Newland’s law of octaves (1865), and Mendeleev’s periodic law (1869). The chart expressing this periodic law seemed to indicate the maximum extent of the elements and gave good hints “where to look for” and “the probable properties of” the remaining ones.

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A Brief History of Element Discovery,Synthesis, and Analysis

 Translations of Sakuntala and Other Works, by Kalidasa

We know from Kalidasa’s writings that he spent at least a part of his life in the city of Ujjain. He refers to Ujjain more than once, and in a manner hardly possible to one who did not know and love the city. Especially in his poem The Cloud-Messenger does he dwell upon the city’s charms, and even bids the cloud make a détour in his long journey lest he should miss making its acquaintance.

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Translations of Shakuntala and Other Works, by Kåalidåasa

Wuthering Heights : Emily Bronte

The ‘walk in’ was uttered with closed teeth, and expressed the sentiment, ‘Go to the Deuce:’ even the gate over which he leant manifested no sympathising movement to the words; and I think that circumstance determined me to accept the invitation: I felt interested in a man who seemed more exaggeratedly reserved than myself.

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Wuthering Heights

Hindu Literature : Epiphanius Wilson

A story-book from the Sanscrit at least possesses the minor merit of novelty. The “perfect language” has been hitherto regarded as the province of scholars, and few of these even have found time or taste to search its treasures. And yet among them is the key to the heart of modern India—as well as the splendid record of her ancient Gods and glories. The hope of Hindostan lies in the intelligent interest of England. Whatever avails to dissipate misconceptions between them, and to enlarge their intimacy, is a gain to both peoples; and to this end the present volume aspires, in an humble degree, to contribute.

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Hindu Literature

A Journey into the Interior of the Earth : Jules Verne

“Understand this clearly,” added the Professor. “At the approach of an eruption these jets would redouble their activity, but disappear altogether during the period of the eruption. For the elastic fluids, being no longer under pressure, go off by way of the crater instead of escaping by their usual passages through the fissures in the soil. Therefore, if these vapours remain in their usual condition, if they display no augmentation of force, and if you add to this the observation that the wind and rain are not ceasing and being replaced by a still and heavy atmosphere, then you may affirm that no eruption is preparing.”

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A Journey into the Interior of the Earth

Kidnapped : R. L. Stevenson

They seemed in great poverty; which was no doubt natural, now that rapine was put down, and the chiefs kept no longer an open house; and the roads (even such a wandering, country by-track as the one I followed) were infested with beggars. And here again I marked a difference from my own part of the country. For our Lowland beggars—even the gownsmen themselves, who beg by patent—had a louting, flattering way with them, and if you gave them a plaek and asked change, would very civilly return you a boddle. But these Highland beggars stood on their dignity, asked alms only to buy snuff (by their account) and would give no change.

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We were all this while in the Chinese dominions, and therefore the Tartars were not so bold as afterwards; but in about five days we entered a vast wild desert, which held us three days’ and nights’ march; and we were obliged to carry our water with us in great leathern bottles, and to encamp all night, just as I have heard they do in the desert of Arabia.  I asked our guides whose dominion this was in, and they told me this was a kind of border that might be called no man’s land, being a part of Great Karakathy, or Grand Tartary: that, however, it was all reckoned as belonging to China, but that there was no care taken here to preserve it from the inroads of thieves, and therefore it was reckoned the worst desert in the whole march, though we were to go over some much larger.

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The Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

The Hindu-Arabic Numerals : D. E. Smith, L.C. Karpinski

So familiar are we with the numerals that bear the misleading name of Arabic, and so extensive is their use in Europe and the Americas, that it is difficult for us to realize that their general acceptance in the transactions of commerce is a matter of only the last four centuries, and that they are unknown to a very large part of the human race to-day. It seems strange that such a labor-saving device should have struggled for nearly a thousand years after its system of place value was perfected before it replaced such crude notations as the one that the Roman conqueror made substantially universal in Europe. Such, however, is the case, and there is probably no one who has not at least some slight passing interest in the story of this struggle. To the mathematician and the student of civilization the interest is generally a deep one; to the teacher of the elements of knowledge the interest may be less marked, but nevertheless it is real; and even the business man who makes daily use of the curious symbols by which we express the numbers of commerce, cannot fail to have some appreciation for the story of the rise and progress of these tools of his trade.

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The Hindu-Arabic Numerals

The Oriental Story Book : Wilhelm Hauff

Tents were pitched, and the camels and horses fastened around. In the midst was a large pavilion of blue silk, to which the chief of the escort conducted the stranger. When they reached the entrance, they saw the five merchants seated on gold-embroidered cushions; black slaves were carrying around to them food and drink. “Whom bringest thou hither to us?” exclaimed the young merchant unto the leader: before, however, the latter could reply, the stranger spoke.

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The Oriental Story Book

Hindu Tales from the Sanskrit : S. M. Mitra

The king was very much touched by what Kadali-Garbha said, but still could not make up his mind to tell her the truth. So he only embraced her fondly, and said she was a good little wife to be so ready to obey him. The queen went away very sadly, wondering to herself what she could do to prove to her dear lord that she loved him as much as ever. She took care never to go outside the palace gardens, but she longed very much for her old freedom, and began to grow pale and thin.

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Hindu Tales from the Sanskrit

Dream Psychology : Sigmund Freud

And how about the value of the dream for a knowledge of the future? That, of course, we cannot consider. One feels inclined to substitute: “for a knowledge of the past.” For the dream originates from the past in every sense. To be sure the ancient belief that the dream reveals the future is not entirely devoid of truth. By representing to us a wish as fulfilled the dream certainly leads us into the future; but this future, taken by the dreamer as present, has been formed into the likeness of that past by the indestructible wish.

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Dream Psychology

The Charyapada : Mystic Poems of Eight Century Bengal (India)

Charyapada is the collection of the oldest verses written in pre-Modern Bengali. Being caryagiti (songs of realisation), the Charyapada were intended to be sung. These songs of realisation were spontaneously composed verses that expressed a practitioner’s experience of the enlightened state.

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The Charypada

Fifteen Thousand Useful Phrases : Greenville Kleiser

The abuse of phrases and the misuse of words rife among us can be checked by diligent exercises in good English, such as this book provides. These exercises, in conjunction with others to be found in different volumes by the same author, will serve to correct careless diction and slovenly speech, and lead to the art of speaking and writing correctly; for, after all, accuracy in the use of words is more a matter of habit than of theory, and once it is acquired it becomes just as easy to speak or to write good English as bad English.

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Fifteen Thousand Useful Phrases

The Waste Land : T.S. Eliot

The Waste Land is a 434-line modernist poem by T. S. Eliot published in 1922. It has been called “one of the most important poems of the 20th century”. Despite the poem’s obscurity—its shifts between satire and prophecy, its abrupt and unannounced changes of speaker, location and time, its elegiac but intimidating summoning up of a vast and dissonant range of cultures and literatures—the poem has become a familiar touchstone of modern literature. Among its famous phrases are “April is the cruellest month”, “I will show you fear in a handful of dust”, and the mantra in the Sanskrit language “Shantih shantih shantih”.

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The Waste Land

Through the Looking-Glass : Lewis Carroll

Alice suddenly awakes in her armchair to find herself holding the black kitten, whom she deduces to have been the Red Queen all along, with the white kitten having been the White Queen. The story ends with Alice recalling the speculation of the Tweedle brothers, that everything may have, in fact, been a dream of the Red King, and that Alice might herself be no more than a figment of his imagination. One final poem is inserted by the author as a sort of epilogue which suggests that life itself is but a dream.

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Through the Looking-Glass

সহজ পাঠ: প্রথম ও দ্বিতীয় ভাগ (Sohoj Path : Part-1&2) : Rabindranath Tagore

Tagore despised rote classroom schooling: in “The Parrot’s Training”, a bird is caged and force-fed textbook pages—to death. Teaching was often done under trees. He staffed the school, he contributed his Nobel Prize monies,and his duties as steward-mentor at Santiniketan kept him busy: mornings he taught classes; afternoons and evenings he wrote the students’ textbooks.

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Sohoj Path

ইংরাজি-পাঠ : প্রথম ভাগ (Ingraji Path : Part-1) : Rabindranath Tagore

Tagore modernized Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to topics political and personal. Tagore despised rote classroom schooling: in “The Parrot’s Training”, a bird is caged and force-fed textbook pages—to death. Teaching was often done under trees. He staffed the school, he contributed his Nobel Prize monies,and his duties as steward-mentor at Santiniketan kept him busy: mornings he taught classes; afternoons and evenings he wrote the students’ textbooks. This is a book for children intending to learn the English language.

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ইংরাজি-পাঠ : প্রথম ভাগ

Nationalism : Rabindranath Tagore

Then came the age of intellect, of science. We all know that intellect is impersonal. Our life is one with us, also our heart, but our mind can be detached from the personal man and then only can it freely move in its world of thoughts. Our intellect is an ascetic who wears no clothes, takes no food, knows no sleep, has no wishes, feels no love or hatred or pity for human limitations, who only reasons, unmoved through the vicissitudes of life.

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The Centre of Indian Culture : Rabindranath Tagore

This has created a most unnatural situation for us, making our own language an obstacle in our pathway of success, thus generating among our educated men a humiliating pride in being able to perform the rope-dancer’s feat of skill by leading their knowledge of English over the perilously thin line of correct grammar. And merely for this we have no other option but fondly to overlook all vital defects in our present system and with grateful tears accept from its hands a stone in place of bread.

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The Centre of Indian Culture

গেরিলা ওপেন আক্সেস ঘোষণা : আরন স্বার্তজ

(Translation from the original English : Subhajit Ganguly)

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Aron Swartz Bengali

छापामार ओपन एकसेस घोषणापत्र

(Translation from the original English : Subhajit Ganguly)

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Aron Swartz Hindi

Guerilla Open Access Manifesto  : Aaron Swartz

We need to take information, wherever it is stored, make our copies and share them with the world. We need to take stuff that’s out of copyright and add it to the archive. We need to download scientific journals and upload them to file sharing networks. We need to fight for Guerilla Open Access.

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Guerilla Open Access Manifesto

The Creative Ideal and Other Essays : Rabindranath Tagore

The attitude of his mind, the manner of his living, the object of his life, his modesty, his unstinted self-sacrifice for a people who had not even the power to give publicity to any benefaction bestowed upon them, were so utterly unlike anything we were accustomed to associate with the Europeans in India, that it gave rise in our mind to a feeling of love bordering upon awe.

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The Creative Ideal and Other Essays

সংস্কৃত শিক্ষা: দ্বিতীয় ভাগ (Sanskrita Siksha: Part-2): Rabindranath Tagore

Tagore despised rote classroom schooling: in “The Parrot’s Training”, a bird is caged and force-fed textbook pages—to death. Teaching was often done under trees. He staffed the school, he contributed his Nobel Prize monies,and his duties as steward-mentor at Santiniketan kept him busy: mornings he taught classes; afternoons and evenings he wrote the students’ textbooks.

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সংস্কৃত শিক্ষা: দ্বিতীয় ভাগ

ইংরাজি সহজশিক্ষা: প্রথম ও দ্বিতীয় ভাগ (English Lessons) : Rabindranath Tagore

A compilation in two parts containing lessons for learning the English language. Tagore’s uniqueness is noteworthy even when he is writing text books for children. The style is easy-going.

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ইংরাজি সহজশিক্ষা: প্রথম ও দ্বিতীয় ভাগ

রাজর্ষি  : রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর (Rajarshi : Rabindranath Tagore)

মনের অভিপ্রায় এই যে, সেই জায়গাটাতে ফুঁ দিয়া , হাত বুলাইয়া, দিদির সমস্ত বেদনা দূর করিয়া দিবে। কিন্তু যখন দিদি কোনো উত্তর দিল না তখন তাহার আর সহ্য হইল না– ছোটো দুইটি ঠোঁট উত্তরোত্তর ফুলিতে লাগিল, অভিমানে কাঁদিয়া উঠিল। কাল হইতে বসিয়া আছে, একটি কথা নাই কেন! তাতা কী করিয়াছে যে, তাহার উপর এত অনাদর! রাজার সম্মুখে তাতার এইরূপ ব্যবহার দেখিয়া কেদারেশ্বর অত্যন্ত শশব্যস্ত হইয়া উঠিল। সে বিরক্ত হইয়া তাতার হাত ধরিয়া অন্য ঘরে টানিয়া লইয়া গেল। তবুও দিদি কিছু বলিল না।

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The Case For India : Annie Besant

Autocracy and bureaucracy must perish utterly, in East and West, and, in order that their germs may not re-sprout in the future, they must be discredited in the minds of men. They must be proved to be less efficient than the Governments of Free Peoples, even in their favourite work of War, and their iron machinery—which at first brings outer prosperity and success—must be shown to be less lasting and effective than the living and flexible organisations of democratic Peoples.

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The Case For India

The Golden Threshold : Sarojini Naidu

“From that day my ‘poetic career’ began. At thirteen I wrote a long poem a la ‘Lady of the Lake’—1300 lines in six days. At thirteen I wrote a drama of 2000 lines, a full-fledged passionate thing that I began on the spur of the moment without forethought, just to spite my doctor who said I was very ill and must not touch a book. My health broke down permanently about this time, and my regular studies being stopped I read voraciously. I suppose the greater part of my reading was done between fourteen and sixteen. I wrote a novel, I wrote fat volumes of journals; I took myself very seriously in those days.”

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The Golden Threshold

The Poison Tree : Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Whether because the light from the oil-less lamp was dim, or because the two occupants of the house were absorbed in thinking of their approaching separation, Nagendra’s entrance was unseen. Standing in the doorway, he heard the last sorrowful words that issued from the mouth of the[9] old man. These two, the old man and the young girl, were friendless in this densely-peopled world. Once they had had wealth, relatives, men and maid servants—abundance of all kinds; but by the fickleness of fortune, one after another, all had gone. The mother of the family, seeing the faces of her son and daughter daily fading like the dew-drenched lotus from the pinch of poverty, had early sunk upon the bed of death. All the other stars had been extinguished with that moon. The support of the race, the jewel of his mother’s eye, the hope of his father’s age, even he had been laid on the pyre before his father’s eyes. No one remained save the old man and this enchanting girl. They dwelt in this ruined, deserted house in the midst of the forest. Each was to the other the only helper.

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The Poison Tree

Dream Psychology : Sigmund Freud

The contrast between manifest and latent dream-content is clearly only of value for the dreams of the second and more especially for those of the third class. Here are problems which are only solved when the manifest dream is replaced by its latent content; it was an example of this kind, a complicated and unintelligible dream, that we subjected to analysis. Against our expectation we, however, struck upon reasons which prevented a complete cognizance of the latent dream thought. On the repetition of this same experience we were forced to the supposition that there is an intimate bond, with laws of its own, between the unintelligible and complicated nature of the dream and the difficulties attending communication of the thoughts connected with the dream. Before investigating the nature of this bond, it will be advantageous to turn our attention to the more readily intelligible dreams of the first class where, the manifest and latent content being identical, the dream work seems to be omitted.

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Dream Psychology

Makers of Many Things : Eva March Tappan

These books are planned to show the children that there is “something more”; to broaden their horizon; to reveal to them what invention has accomplished and what wide room for invention still remains; to teach them that reward comes to the man [iv] who improves his output beyond the task of the moment; and that success is waiting, not for him who works because he must, but for him who works because he may.

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Makers of Many Things

Three Men in a Boat : Jerome K. Jerome

My tooth-brush is a thing that haunts me when I’m travelling, and makes my life a misery. I dream that I haven’t packed it, and wake up in a cold perspiration, and get out of bed and hunt for it. And, in the morning, I pack it before I have used it, and have to unpack again to get it, and it is always the last thing I turn out of the bag; and then I repack and forget it, and have to rush upstairs for it at the last moment and carry it to the railway station, wrapped up in my pocket-handkerchief.

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Three Men in a Boat

1001 Questions and Answers on Orthography and Reading : B. A. Hathaway

Orthography is largely concerned with matters of spelling, and in particular the relationship between phonemes and graphemes in a language. Other elements that may be considered part of orthography include hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation. Orthography thus describes or defines the set of symbols used in writing a language, and the rules about how to use those symbols.

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1001 Questions and Answers on Orthography and Reading

French Conversation and Composition : Harry Vincent Wann

This little volume has been prepared with a twofold purpose in mind: to provide material (1) for conversation and (2) for a review in the elementary principles of the grammar. To attempt to stimulate spontaneous conversation, even on simple subjects, without the aid of a French model, not only is hazardous but often becomes aimless, and at best results in the acquisition of a limited vocabulary. Furthermore, it requires a skilful teacher to adapt to such purposes the substance of a text prepared with a totally different end in view.

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French Conversation and Composition

Computer Fundamentals

Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use.

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Computer Fundamental

Think Python — How to Think Like a Computer Scientist : Allen Downey

Here are some suggestions for reading programs (and other formal languages). First, remember that formal languages are much more dense than natural languages, so it takes longer to read them. Also, the structure is very important, so it is usually not a good idea to read from top to bottom, left to right. Instead, learn to parse the program in your head, identifying the tokens and interpreting the structure. Finally, the details matter. Small errors in spelling and punctuation, which you can get away with in natural languages, can make a big difference in a formal language.

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আরণ্যক (Aranyak) : বিভূতিভূষণ বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায় (Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay)

Aranyak literally means Of the Forest. This novel explores the journey of the protagonist Satyacharan in the dichotomy of the urban and jungle lives. This novel reflects the great love of human and nature that the great novelist experienced in his heart. This novel is a classic in Bengali literature and has influenced many upcoming novelists and intellectuals alike.

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गबन (Gaban) : प्रेमचन्द (Premchand)

A novel writer, story writer and dramatist, he has been referred to as the “Upanyas Samrat” (“Emperor among Novelists”) by some Hindi writers. His works include more than a dozen novels, around 250 short stories, several essays and translations of a number of foreign literary works into Hindi.

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कर्मभूमि(Karmbhumi) : प्रेमचन्द (Premchand)

Premchand is considered the first Hindi author whose writings prominently featured realism.His novels describe the problems of the poor and the urban middle-class. His works depict a rationalistic outlook, which views religious values as something that allows the powerful hypocrites to exploit the weak.He used literature for the purpose of arousing public awareness about national and social issues and often wrote about topics related to corruption, child widowhood, prostitution, feudal system, poverty, colonialism and on the India’s freedom movement.

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आनंदमठ (Anandamath) : बंकिम चन्द्र चट्टोपाध्याय (Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay)

Set in the background of the Sannyasi Rebellion in the late 18th century, it is considered one of the most important novels in the history of Bengali and Indian literature. Its importance is heightened by the fact that it became synonymous with the struggle for Indian independence from the British Empire. The novel was banned by the British. The ban was lifted later by the Government of India after independence.

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টুনটুনির বই (Tuntunir Boi) : উপেন্দ্রকিশোর রায়চৌধুরী (Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury)

Upendrakishore’s greatest contribution was in the field of children’s literature in Bengali. His prominent works include the fantasy “Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne”(Bangla: গুপী গাইন বাঘা বাইন) (on which Satyajit Ray based his acclaimed children’s movie with the same name), children’s verses in “Ţunţuni’r Boi”(Bangla:টুনটুনির বই), and the children’s versions of the Hindu epics – “Chheleder Ramayon” and “Chheleder Môhabharot”. He did most of the illustrations of his books himself.

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টুনটুনির বই

Animation Concepts : Debasmita Banik

The Z-buffer technique, used in computer graphics programming, determines which objects are behind & in front of each other in a 3D view. It is taken into consideration from the eye’s perspective. Z-buffer rendering gets its name from the fact that all objects in the scene are sorted by their Z position or depth in scene. This depth information is kept in a buffer & made available to the rendering process as the hidden surface removal calculations are performed.

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Animation Concepts

The Maths Teacher’s Handbook : J. Portman, J. Richardson

This book brings together many of these tried and tested ideas from teachers worldwide, including the extensive experience of VSO maths teachers and their national colleagues working together in schools throughout Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Pacific. We hope teachers everywhere will use the ideas in this book to help students increase their mathematical knowledge and skills.

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The Maths Teacher’s Handbook

छापामार ओपन एकसेस घोषणापत (Guerilla Open Access Manifesto) : एरन स्वाटरज (Aron Swartz)

जहाँ भी जानकिारी बांध हो, उसे खोल किे सबकिे सामने लानेकिी जरुरत है । किॉपीराइट सीमा किे बहार अ चुकिे िजतने भी सामग्री हो उन्हे अपने डिजेटाबेस मे जोरने किी जरुरत है । गुप्त डिजेटाबेस खरीदकिर इन्टरनेट मे दालने किी आवश्यकिता है । बैज्ञाि हनकि पि हतकिाओं किो डिजाउनलोडिज किरकिे उन्हे फिाइल शक्तेयिरंग नेटवकसर (file sharing networks ) मे डिजालना है । हमे छापामार ओपन एकसेस (Guerilla Open Access ) किे िलए लड़ना है ।

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Aron Swartz Hindi


Vitayard is a research sharing platform of the ‘scavenging’ type. It is powered by selections and submissions to the Vitayard Blog. Vitayard is supported by the Open Knowledge Foundation Network, India. ‘As more and more researchers embrace Open practices, irrespective of the influence of any kind of authority and affiliations, a new free world of debate and discussions will truly open up.’ Read the October issue.

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In days to come, we hope to take Vitayard forward in achieving the true spirit of not only Open Access but Open Research. Sharing research openly is a responsibility that researchers simply cannot escape today. Repositories that are Open Access can take care of that. Scavenging Systems like Vitayard can publish research that appear in such repositories. They can take in submissions from researchers directly, as well.

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Vitayard invites you to be a part of it. You can join as a contributing member to the community and list papers and research materials of your choice, following certain guidelines. You will get several benefits like Open Access to all the research materials, a greater accessibility to all available research, being at the forefront of Open Science and Research, the list of benefits goes on…

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Constitution of India — Acts

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments (out of 120 Constitution Amendment Bills).

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Constitution of India

Constitution of India — Complete (up to 92nd Amendment Acts)

The Constitution was adopted by the India Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date of 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document. To ensure constitutional autochthony, the framers of constitution inserted Article 395 in the constitution and by this Article the Indian Independence Act, 1947 was repealed. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them. The words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment (mini constitution). India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day.

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Constitution of India (Complete)

জীবনানন্দ দাশ-এর  কবিতা (Poetry by Jibanananda Das)

Das wrote ceaselessly, but as he was an introvert and the “most alone of [Bengali] poets”, he felt “compelled to suppress some of his most important writings or to locate them in a secret life”. During his lifetime, only seven volumes of his poems were published. After his death, it was discovered that apart from poems Jibanananda Das wrote several novels and a large number of short stories. His unpublished works are still being published.

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Poetry by Jibanananda Das

শরৎ রচনাসমগ্র (Sarat Rachanasamagra — The Complete Collection): Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay

করুণাময়ীর মনে মনে একটা সঙ্কল্প ছিল। স্নানের ঘাটে ভারী একটি সুলক্ষণা মেয়ে কিছুদিন হইতে তাঁহার চোখে পড়িয়াছিল। মেয়েটি মায়ের সহিত প্রায়ই গঙ্গাস্নানে আসিত। ইঁহারা যে তাঁহাদের স্বঘর এ সংবাদ তিনি গোপনে সংগ্রহ করিয়াছিলেন। স্নানান্তে মেয়েটি শিবপূজা করিত, কোথাও কিছু ভুল হয় কি না, করুণাময়ী অলক্ষ্যে লক্ষ্য করিয়া দেখিতেন। তাঁহার আরও কিছু কিছু জানিবার ছিল, এবং সেপক্ষে তিনি নিশ্চেষ্টও ছিলেন না। তাঁহার বাসনা ছিল সমস্ত তথ্য যদি অনুকূল হয় ত আগামী বৈশাখেই ছেলের বিবাহ দিবেন।


Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay was a Bengali novelist and short story writer of early 20th century. He is regarded as one of the greatest novelists of all time. His works are very popular even to this day and have been translated to many languages from the original Bengali. Here is a complete collection of his works.

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Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay

देवदास: शरतचन्द्र चटर्जी (Devdas: Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay) — Hindi Version

In Calcutta, Devdas’ carousing friend, Chunni Lal, introduces him to a courtesan named Chandramukhi. Devdas takes to heavy drinking at Chandramukhi’s place, but the courtesan falls in love with him, and looks after him. His health deteriorates because of a combination of excessive drinking and despair – a drawn-out form of suicide. Within him, he frequently compares Paro and Chandramukhi. Somehow he feels betrayed by Paro, never realizing that she was the one who had loved him first, that she had said it out loud first. He doesn’t realise this, but Chandramukhi does, and tells him so. When sober he would hate Chandramukhi and loathe her presence. So he would drink, to forget his prejudices. Chandramukhi saw it all, felt it all and suffered silently, but she had seen that real man behind the fallen, aimless Devdas he now was and couldn’t help but love him.

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চোখের বালি (Chokher Bali): রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর(Rabindranath Tagore)

Tagore elaborately records early 20th-century Bengali society through his central character, the rebellious widow who wants to live a life of her own. In writing this novel he exposes the custom of perpetual mourning on the part of widows, who were not allowed to remarry and were condemned to a life of seclusion and loneliness. It is a melancholic, stirring tale of the deceit and sorrow that arise from dissatisfaction and sorrow. Tagore has said about the novel, “I have always regretted the ending”.

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চোখের বালি রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর

Contemporary World Politics — Class-12: NCERT

UN operation, which was called ‘Operation Desert Storm’, was overwhelmingly American. An American general, Norman Schwarzkopf, led the UN coalition and nearly 75 per cent of the coalition forces were rom the US. Although the Iraqi President, Saddam Hussein, had promised “the mother of all battles”, the Iraqi forces were quickly defeated and forced to withdraw from

Kuwait. The First Gulf War revealed the vast technological gap that had opened up between the US military capability and that of other states. The highly publicised use of so-

called ‘smart bombs’ by the US led some observers to call this a ‘computer war’. Widespread television coverage also made it a ‘video game war’, with viewers around the world watching the destruction of Iraqi forces live on TV in the comfort of their living rooms. Incredibly, the US may actually have made a profit from the war. According to many reports, the US received more money from countries like Germany, Japan and Saudi Arabia than it had spent on the war.

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Contemporary Politics –12

Mathematics Part-1 — Class-12 (NCERT)

The prescribed maths textbook for class12 students.

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Mathematics Part=1 (Class-12)

Mathematics Part-2 — Class-12 (NCERT)

The prescribed maths textbook for class12 students.

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Mathematics Class-12 Part-2

गणित भाग – १– कक्षा १२ (NCERT)

कक्षा १२ छात्रों के लिए निर्धारित गणित की पाठ्यपुस्तक

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गणित भाग – १– कक्षा १२

गणित भाग – २ — कक्षा १२ (NCERT)

कक्षा १२ छात्रों के लिए निर्धारित गणित की पाठ्यपुस्तक

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गणित भाग – २ — कक्षा १२

Mathematics Exemplar Problems — Class-12 (NCERT)

The prescribed maths textbook for class12 students.

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Maths Exemplar Problems

Mathematics Exemplar Problems in Hindi — Class-12 (NCERT)

The prescribed maths textbook for class12 students.

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Exemplar Problems in Hindia–12

भास्वती– कक्षा १२ (NCERT)

कक्षा १२ छात्रों के लिए निर्धारित संस्कृतम् की पाठ्यपुस्तक

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भास्वती– कक्षा १२
























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